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Advanced Aerodynamics: An Overview

While the decades of continuous industry effort to reduce drag on wheeled vehicles demonstrates this subject to be somewhat mysterious, vehicle aerodynamics does not have to be so confusing. In fact, for open-wheeled vehicles, minimizing vehicle drag turns out to be a surprisingly simple mechanical systems problem, with a straightforward solution based on rather basic engineering principles. The simple application of the drag equation to various vehicle surfaces—to determine their relative effects on overall vehicle drag—has yielded several recent inventions that can actually minimize vehicle drag.

Our patented solutions to minimizing drag on open-wheeled vehicles include AERODEFENDER™ wheel fairings and AEROCROSS™ wheels with SPOKE FINS™ for bicycles. Each invention is designed to reduce drag specifically on the faster-moving, critical-drag-inducing, uppermost portion of the wheel.   And each invention also teaches that it is only the uppermost portion of the wheel which actually contributes the vast majority of wheel drag to an open-wheeled vehicle, and that lowermost wheel surfaces actually contribute almost no vehicle drag, and should therefore always remain exposed to headwinds.

Thus, the approaches embodied by each invention rely on a new recognition of the actual mechanical systems effect of various wheel drag forces upon the vehicle. Importantly, drag on a wheel surface imparts a torque on the wheel that must be calculated as applied about the ground contact point of the wheel, rather that about the axle. Mechanical models that do not include this magnified drag effect on the upper wheel will greatly underestimate the actual effect of upper wheel drag on the vehicle itself.

The following summary explanations are then presented to better inform industry insiders of the innovate nature of this new approach. Still for full appreciation, this revolutionary method for minimizing vehicle drag will still likely require considerable study by technically competent systems mechanical engineers, since it overturns long-held faulty modeling assumptions still prevalent in both industry and the racing community.

For example, shielding the lowermost wheel from headwinds actually substantially increases overall vehicle drag. Yet the racecar industry still employs this faulty technique of shielding the lower wheel and deflecting wind to instead increase drag on the upper wheel in Formula One, IndyCar, etc., while claiming that substantial vehicle drag to be otherwise imparted on the vehicle. (Note with the recent introduction of this technology to IndyCar in late 2014, lower front wings are just now beginning to grow smaller in size, at least.)

Thus, our aim herein is simply to further incite change in the current stagnant industry approaches to vehicle drag reduction. Please consider the implications of the summary bullet points presented below for each invention as a starting point. And for even more in-depth explanations, please refer to the expanded technical discussion further below, and finally to the individual patents referenced below.

AERODEFENDER Wheel Fairings

Breakthrough Patent US 9,878,745

AERODEFENDER™ wheel fairings simply shield only the uppermost portion of the wheel to effectively minimize overall vehicle drag, while simultaneously increasing steering traction for more predictable control at high speed.

• MINIMIZE Vehicle Drag for Unmatched Speed Gains
Slice through headwinds; Rising effectiveness in stronger headwinds.
• Enhance Steering Traction for Predictable Stability in Crosswinds
Reduce ground slip force, yielding more available cornering traction.
• Reduce Cyclic Pedaling Fatigue by Slicing through Headwinds
Reduce natural cyclic pedaling effort, yielding greater propulsive efficiency.
• Outperform ANY Aero Wheel Against Stronger Headwinds
Shift magnified upper wheel drag onto un-magnified vehicle frame.
• Enhanced AERO Enables Use of Wider Tires and Stronger Rims
Eliminate most of the substantially increased wheel drag using wider tires.
• Cost-Effective AERO Performance for Mid-Range Bicycles
Provides high-end aero performance to wider mid-range bicycle market.

AEROCROSS Wheels with SPOKE FINS

Patent US 9,290,041

AEROCROSS™ wheels with SPOKE FINS™ streamline the round spoke, substantially reducing drag on the bicycle wheel itself—even in the presence of substantial crosswinds—while providing unmatched crosswind stability and safety to the cyclist in gusty wind conditions.

    • Laminar Flow MINIMIZES Spoke Drag in Windy Conditions
    Maintains low-drag laminar flow across the spoke even in crosswinds.
    • Unmatched Crosswind Stability Enhances Pedaling Efficiency
    Enables aerobar position far longer under gusty crosswind conditions.
    • Crosswind-Induced Propulsion for Enhanced Drag Reduction
    Fin-generated lift in crosswinds propels wheel for greater wheel efficiency.
    • Outperforms ANY Aero Wheel in Strong Crosswinds
    Becoming the most cost-effective aero wheel for use in windy conditions.
    • Essential Drag Reduction for High Spoke Count Wheels
    Fin lift propulsion in crosswinds augments high spoke count wheel efficiency.